Hublot – An Introduction
Despite the fact that the global economy is still in turmoil we live in a society where Millionaires are common place. In fact, to be considered wealthy in this day and age you have to be a multi-millionaire. The small percentage of super-wealthy Chinese (although even 0.01% of 1.33 billion would equate to 133,000 millionaires!) are spreading their new-found wealth around with enthusiastic abandon. Therefore, the so-called luxury industry is still buoyant.
However, it still takes skill and integrity to become successful within this niche market. One such brand that is showing all others how to achieve incredible year by year growth, in this already bloated sector, is Hublot.
Hublot as a brand existed as far back as 1980. However, Hublot as we know it today is a relatively new-comer to the high-end watch industry having been revitalised and re-invented by the marketing, managerial and design genius Jean Claude Biver in 2003. Jean Claude Biver is commonly regarded as the most astute and shrewd business personality with the high-end watch industry. He started his career, after earning a degree in Business, at Audemars Piguet. He only spent 1 year there as Production Manager. He left remarking that he could do better elsewhere, which is a true reflection of the man’s vision, determination, motivation and confidence in his own abilities.
In 1981 Jean-Claude and Jacques Piguet, who was running the movement manufacturer Frederic Piguet at the time, purchased the rights to Blancpain. This long running watchmaker had gone out of business in the 1970s during the quartz crisis. Biver rebuilt the traditional watchmaking reputation of Blancpain with the tag line “Since 1735 there has never been a quartz Blancpain, and there never will be”. In 1992 Blancpain was sold to the SIHH group for 60,000,000 CHF. It was originally bought for 22,000 CHF. Biver remained the CEO of Blancpain until 2003.
After the sale of Blancpain Biver joined the board of directors at The Swatch Group. He was challenged with turning around Omega, who, it would surprise those who only know of Omega’s standing now, had become a Swiss national joke within the 1980s. Biver used his marketing experience and guile, including sponsorships and celebrity ambassadors, to triple Omega’s sales within the 10 years he was stationed with the brand. Biver left Omega in 2003.
Biver was briefly out of work during a part of 2004 until he was offered the position of CEO of Hublot. Biver must have been confident in the brand immediately because he also became a board member.
It would, seemingly, take a very brave man to take on an unknown brand with the vision of creating a globally recognised brand in a field that the general public are naive to, unless your name happens to be Rolex, Omega or Tag Heuer. Jean Claude Biver is not necessarily brave but he is most definitely clever and savvy.
No-one can argue that he has done an incredible job of placing the name Hublot within the minds and conscious of the horolophiles, and most importantly, cash ready Yuppies (do we still use that term?) across the globe.
With all this in mind I was still very sceptical of the Hublot watches. Price tags ranged from £10000 to over £100000 with no in-house movements. As a result I wasn’t particularly excited when Andrew announced that we were to be taking the brand on at the shop. I wondered how I was going to be able to sell such watches. We don’t get Chinese millionaires or Premiership footballers dropping in on a regular basis.
Inevitably, I was so wrong. Jean-Claude, I’m sorry I ever doubted you. Hublot watches are beautifully finished and incredibly detailed. They give the impression that love has been lavished upon every one of these watches. It would be easy to love one too. Expensive watches often rely on precious metals and pure colour diamonds to justify their price tags. For me, they lose a lot of character as a consequence. These so-called watches always seem to have been bought for other people to look at other than the actual wearer. Well, now you can have a watch that attracts attention but is also a pleasure to wear and gaze upon yourself.
Value is always going to be an issue with a wrist watch that has similar datasheet specs to those costing half as much. I am, of course referring to the fact that there are stainless steel chronograph watches with rubber straps from well-established and respected brands available at half the price of the Big Bang, for example.
Any product is only ever worth as much as somebody is willing to pay for it. However, even millionaires are fickle and most of them are surprisingly knowledgeable about watches. Despite my statement above we do have an enviable amount of Footballer clients. So, I do speak from experience. I was concerned that Hublot may just become another flash-in-pan, this-years-must-have. I know this will not be the case. The product is too strong and desirable for that to happen. In fact, having had the immense pleasure of handling these covetable watches I honestly predict big things for Hublot in the future.
But what about the past. A brand needs integrity as well as a great product to make it to the upper echelons of watch making these days.
Carlo Crocco is the original inventor of the Hublot, which translates to porthole in French. He left the Italian Binda Group, most famous for Breil watches, in 1976 to create his own watch company. He moved to Switzerland and formed MDM Geneve. The main watch design was the Hublot. Crocco is a fan of sailing and he wanted to design a watch that he could wear whilst sailing and also at the parties upon his yacht. He wanted to integrate his love of sailing as a design feature for his new timepiece. Hence, the Porthole. He also realised that rubber is a material frequently used for sailing and diving. It is non-permeable. It never perishes. Why couldn’t a high-end, precious material watch (the originals were gold) be presented with a rubber strap? The innovation of the Hublot timepieces started at the very beginning. An interesting fact is that, upon its introduction at the BaselWorld watch fair in 1980, the Hublot was the first watch to have a natural rubber strap. It also set the trend for amalgamations of rubber straps and precious metals, which are commonplace today. Ironically, the watch buying world was not immediately ready for such a radically new timepiece and no orders were taken at the show. However, buyers soon came to appreciate the Hublot and sales topped 3,000,000CHF in the first year.
Carlo Crocco became preoccupied with his own design work and also his Hand-in-Hand Foundation charity which helps deprived children across the globe. Crocco went in search of somebody to take the reins of the company in 2003 and got lucky when he found Jean Claude Biver on a sabbatical. Biver had the savoir-faire to see the potential in Crocco’s design and the design philosophy. Biver became CEO and small shareholder in May. The rest, as they always say, is history.
Biver immediately set about creating a new flagship collection that was unveiled in Basel in April 2005: The Hublot “Big Bang” chronograph. This new luxury watch incorporated Biver’s adapted concept of Fusion. The impact was immediate and sales of Hublot watches increased threefold in one year. At the end of 2005 the Big Bang chronograph won multiple international design and horological awards. It received the “2005 Design Prize” in the “Geneva Watchmaking Grand Prix”, the “Sports Watch Prize” at the “Watch of the Year” ceremony in Japan, and the Middle Eastern Prize for the “Best Oversized Watch” at the Editor’s Choice “Watch of the Year” in Bahrain. Incidentally, Biver chose the name “Big Bang” because it represented the beginning and was also a common multi-language phrase. It was universal in both aspects.
Following the arrival of Biver in 2004, the brand’s sales hit 24 million Swiss francs and by the end of 2006, sales were bordering on the 100 million Swiss franc mark.
This prestigious brand had soon become common language for those to whom it was relevant and potential customers due to clever product placement. Due to this extraordinary rise the brand was always going to garner interest from potential suitors. In 2008 luxury behemoth LVMH (Louis Vuitton, Moet and Hennessey) bought Hublot. This massive luxury group, who also control Tag Heuer amongst others, injected huge amounts of cash into Hublot. This has allowed Biver to realise his dream of the brand becoming a Manufacture. In 2009 Hublot moved into its own 6000 square meter manufacturing facility and in 2010 they purchased long term movement supplier BNB Concept and its staff after they declared bankruptcy. The in-house Unico movement is the first fruits of this acquisition.
Biver had done it again.
*Thanks to Wikipedia for the statistics quoted above*
The main two models in the current Hublot catalogue are the Big Bang and the Classic Fusion. The former of these collections integrates Biver’s design philosophy “The Art of Fusion”. The fusion quoted relates to the amalgamation of high end materials and employ a sandwich design that is unique to the industry. The Classic Fusion series pays close attention to the original Hublot “Porthole” design by Carlo Crocco. Biver credits Crocco for the Fusion concept with his original idea to bring Malaysian Rubber and South African Gold for the original Hublot timepiece. Incidentally, Biver considers Crocco a genius. I suppose if another genius thinks you’re a genius then you probably are.
Apart from a handful of in-house movements designed and built by Hublot’s manufacture facilities, movement ebauches are supplied by tried and trusted high volume supplier ETA. These are primarily 7750 chronograph and 2892 three handed units that are completely stripped down by Hublot and refinished to offer excellent rate results and reliability.
The Big Bang is now Hublots flagship model. It incorporates all the DNA of the brand: High end material fusion, exquisite detailing and finishing, comfort and bold, distinctive design. Any high-end watch publicity material will hark on about emotion. The two main constituents that generate emotion in a wrist watch are aesthetics and comfort. Aesthetics will always be subjective, of course. However, to gain impact in the over-populated world of expensive (subjective again) watches a unique look is required. This means venturing outside the classic round case watch design. There is no doubt that there are some fantastic watch designers out there that can generate incredibly desirable watches. However, these contemporary wrist watches still need to be comfortable to wear. Hublot has managed to combine a wonderful new case design for their Big Bang whilst offering non-fatiguing wearing pleasure. My favourite watch design of all time is the PloProf 1200. I was never more excited when I finally managed to acquire one, only to find it was uncomfortable to the point of being painful on my skinny wrists. It was even more painful for me to admit to myself that I would never truly enjoy wearing it as I had dreamed which resulted in me selling it.
Below are a few images taken to present the detailing of the 41mm Big Bang Steel Ceramic.
This watch has incredible character which is achieved by its many facets. It has the ability to catch the light in so many different aspects.
The Big Bang is one of those rare watches that caters for wealthy, unknowledgable watch lovers (that sounds unfair but how many of them would know their balance spring from their main spring?) and the true horolophiles (those that will make full use of the sapphire exhibition caseback on a regular basis).
The whole experience of wearing the Big Bang is positive: it simply looks good and feels good.
Another point to consider is that Hublot only produce about 28000 watches per year. This is done on purpose to maintain exclusivity. There are a lot of Limited Editions (usually about 250 to 500 are made of each) within Hublot’s catalogue. The rest can all be considered Limited Production models.
Another Swiss watch brand with Italian heritage has become popular throughout the watch collecting fraternity by allowing owners to easily customise their watches with quick and painless strap changes. This simple idea does lead to the wearer being able to radically alter the appearance of their timepiece. Hublot have adapted this idea so that a strap swap is facilitated by four easy-to-get-at screws on the underside of the lugs. There is not a massive after market for Hublot straps yet but, at this stage, it’s nice to know that swapping between the leather and rubber straps that currently exist within the Hublot catalogue is as uncomplicated as swapping between a swim suit and a dress suit and banana fingered owners will not risk damaging their watch case.
Incidentally, 100m water resistance is common across the entire range of Big Bang watches. This is achieved for all case materials by have a titanium core which hermetically seals the movement. This complements Hublot’s aspirations to make an all-round timepiece.
The Big Bang comes in 38mm and 42mm three handed models, 41mm and 44mm Chronograph examples. There is also a 38mm quartz movement version.
All mechanical Hublot watches, except the “King” diver models, have a sapphire glass exhibition case back and yet still retain excellent water resistance.
The clasps are strong and secure and implement the Hublot “H” motif.
The Big Bang models clearly have sporting tendencies but, through clever attention to detail and beautiful fit and finish, they look just as good when dressed up.
The Hublot Classic Fusion is elegance personified. And yet it has a sporty nature, as well. This is one of those rare timepieces that has the ability to look perfect alongside a t-shirt or a dress shirt. The Art of Fusion is not as obvious as it is with the “sandwich” styled Big Bang but it is still an important element of the aesthetic. In the 42mm Chronograph example, highlighted below, the stainless steel bezel is connected to the stainless steel head of the watch through a composite material gasket.
The contrast between the meticulously satin and polished surfaces gives this range of watches a true high end feel. The attention to detail is, yet again, a reflection of the passion of Hublots designers and watch makers.
The Classic Fusion is most readily presented on the leather strap. This is in-keeping with the classic aspect. To lengthen the life and extend the usability of the watch the leather has been wrapped underneath by rubber. These straps are available across the full range of Hublots.
The Classic Fusion series is available in 33mm, 38mm, 42mm and 45mm three handed versions and 42mm and 45mm Chronograph versions. There is also a manual winding Squelette (Skeleton) dial example.
The Aero Bang is so called because it utilises a stunning skeleton dial. I love the industrial look of this fascinating timepiece. There is a true perception of depth. It rewards scrutiny through many different angles. As such this is a watch that will continue to delight and surprise aesthetically for a long time. One negative point I would make is that there are no obvious moving parts from the dial side. The easiest components to generate movement at will are the winding mechanism and mains spring barrel. These are only visible through the sapphire glass exhibition case back.
Despite this the Aero Bang is my favourite Hublot that I could wear. The Oceanagraphic just tips the balance in its own favour due to its outlandish design and 4000m water resistance but it is, by far, too big for me to wear.
The dial structure elevates the Aero beyond a watch and into a work of art akin to De Vinci’s Robots. To be able to appreciate the beating heart and drive train mechanisms whilst viewing the time that these elements are working to maintain is fascinating to behold.
The Aero Bang is 45mm in diameter and comes in five versions: All Steel, Steel/Ceramic (highlighted below), Ceramic, Carbon Fibre and Gold.
Due to the lack of real estate on the dial the Hublot script is printed on the inside of the dial.
The Aero Bang is remarkably comfortable given its 44m diameter.
Success is often a difficult thing to measure. Sure, if you have an Olympic gold medal you’ve been successful. But do you consider yourself a true success unless you win that same discipline four years later? If you manage to live comfortably from the income of your own business you can consider yourself a success. But wouldn’t you like to be in a position where money-is-no object? To put it more simply we gauge our own personal success by the goals we set ourselves. If we work hard we deserve the spoils we achieve. Arguably, we also deserve to allow ourselves to wallow in our success. Else, what’s the point? This attitude has been prominent in society for a few years now. Luxury watch brands realise this and as a consequence watch sizes have become larger and larger.
So, it is without any surprise that Hublot, a brand aimed squarely at the cultured and successful, have a collection of large watches called the King Power. These eye catching timepieces have a diameter of 48mm.
Despite this superlative inducing girth the King Power maintains the same levels of comfort via well thought out ergonomics. Even on my 6.5” wrist the King Power timepieces never become tiresome or painful to wear. The extra bulk is transformed into a feeling of solidity and reassurance.
The King Power Unico houses Hublots first in-house mainstream movement. This is displayed in all its glory by utilising a Skeleton dial. The 330 component movement includes a tungsten rotor, a flyback chronograph and a date complication.
The Unico is available in gold, titanium, carbon fibre or ceramic.
The King Power features heavily in Hublot’s line of Limited Edition timepieces. See “Limited Editions”below.
Big Bang King:
This Big Bang King differs from its siblings. It clearly has Divers watch aspirations. The water resistance has been increased to 300m, it utilises a screw down crown and it incorporates a rotating uni-directional bezel. This particular example has been manufactured using truly exotic materials which include a polished and satin finished ceramic case, a ceramic bezel, oversized rhodium plated hands with copious luminous material, a synthetic rubber strap and a carbon fibre dial. The juxtaposition of polished and satin ceramic lends itself to stunning visual appeal. But the main aesthetic treat is the true carbon fibre dial which creates a wonderful optical illusion whereby the dial text and rhodium plated hour markers seemingly float above the dial.
The bezel is also a feet of engineering excellence because the detailing withstands scrutiny under the highest of magnification. And yet ceramic is notoriously difficult to sculpture. To give an example of this: The Hublot watches with steel, titanium and gold casebacks all have the individual serial number LASER engraved. The ceramic caseback has to have the serial number printed.
Due to it’s under water credentials this watch does not have an exhibition caseback.
The diameter is 48mm and yet, as is common across the range, comfort is retained through clever ergonomics. It still looks ridiculous on my 6.5” wrists though.
This watch truly means business and the high end materials make this one of the most desirable diver’s watches on the market. The Big Bang King offers utilitarian luxury.
The Big Bang King comes in Gold, Ceramic and Stainless Steel.
Another large watch within Hublot’s portfolio is the Oceanagraphic. However, the size is totally justified, on an engineering level, due the 4000m water resistance. Let us just consider that for a second: 4000m under water. It’s a crazy concept that makes us question whether any of these Oceanagraphic timepieces will ever be subject to that environment. The pressures are mind blowing: At 4000m under water the watch case would be subjected to over 4 tonnes per square inch! Still, at least we know the Oceanagraphic will be hermetically sealed and tougher than any imaginable real-world situation requires.
Let’s face it: The Oceanagraphic was designed for both Hublot and anyone lucky enough to own one to be able to beat any other mechanical watch on the market in a hypothetical game of Water Resistance Top Trumps. Hublot set out to show that they can design and develop watches that set the bench mark.
The 48mm Oceanagraphic is available in titanium or carbon fibre.
As previously mentioned Hublot offer, and control, exclusivity with any of their models due to low production numbers. Then there are the Limited Editions. These themed watches, often as a result of an ambassador or sponsored event, proffer elitism by virtue of numbered editions ranging from single integer numbers up to a few hundred.
These are the products of creative minds that take an original theme and implement it into a timepiece. Careful consideration is given to materials, additional complications and colour accents.
The highlight of the current medley of Hublot Limited Edition watches, for me, is the Usain Bolt King Power Ceramic. Only 250 of these will be produced. We are lucky enough to have been selected by Hublot to have one of these.
The sapphire caseback has a printed Bolt logo and the colours of the World’s best Sprinter’s national flag are used throughout. The highlight, although probably the least expensive element of the watch, is the strap which is produced from the exact same material Usain uses in his running shoes. It’s these little but well thought out details that elevate Hublot’s Limited Edition watches above the norm.
I would highly recommend doing a google image search for Hublot Limited Editions. Your investigations will uncover an education in attention to detail and sponsorship to wristwatch transposition.
Whilst reviewing Hublot it would be very easy to mis-represent the brand. They are most famous for one watch: The Big Bang. A watch that is beautifully made, cleverly designed and a pleasure to wear but is aimed squarely at an audience that could conceivably have no interest in horology whatsoever. They simply want a reliable, robust, dependable, beautifully made, highly detailed time teller and are prepared to pay for it.
However, Hublot have recently created three incredible materpieces of haute horology that any brand would be justifiably very proud of: The Key of Time, The Antikythera and their own in-house Minute Repeater Tourbillon, the chosen watch of a certain Mr Biver.
I’ve discussed luxury within this article but the greatest luxury we have is time. It is also the only thing that none of us can control. By its abstract nature, and depending on your situation, time can either seem to go too quickly or too slowly. With the Key of Time Hublot are offering the lucky few owners the greatest indulgence of all. Their tag line for this incredibly complicated timepiece is “YOUR time the way YOU want it”. What this translates to on the wrist is the ability to slow and speed up the regulation of the timekeeping and then reset it at will. Useful, relevant, practical? Highly debatable. Fantastical, magical, clever, desirable, whimsical? Most definitely.
By setting the secondary crown to three individual positions the time can either be set to indicate the current time, the time accelerated by a factor of four (quarter hours become full hours) or the time decelerated by a factor of four (full hours become quarter hours).
This complication in itself would allow the 512 component, 74 jewel Key of Time movement to enter the annuls of horology at its upper most fulcrum. However, the Key of Time also includes a vertical flying tourbillon with seconds indication. Only 50 of these extraordinary timepieces will ever be made.
The design is as other-worldly and revolutionary as the movement. This is a true statement of intent and a reflection of considerable knowledge and skill from Hublot.
If you think the Key of Time is verging on the realms of implausibility then the Antikythera will make you total re-evaluate what you consider is possible by not only today’s mechanical geniuses but also of those from over 2000 years ago.
The Antikythera by Hublot is an homage timepiece manufactured to pay tribute to the mind-boggling astronomical mechanism that was uncovered off the Greek shoreline in 1900. Many, many tests have been performed on this incredible discovery to conclude that it was originally created about 2100 years ago! This ancient reflection of genius was able to exhibit the positional relationships of the movements between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun.
Hublot added hours, minutes, a 5 day power reserve and a tourbillon escapement.
Sadly, before you go looking at your bank balance in consideration of purchasing one of these incredible timepieces, only four will ever be produced. The first three are displayed at the Athens Museum, alongside fragments of the original Antikythera mechanism, the Musee des Arts et Metiers in Paris and the Hublot museum. Number 4 was auctioned off with all proceeds going to the Archeological Museum of Athens.
The double sided movement is displayed through two faceted sapphire crystals. Two crowns are used to represent the original Antikythera Mechanism. The crown at 6 O’clock is used to wind the movement and set the time. The second crown at 12 O’clock is used to correct the astronomical indications by indexing the moon’s age in relation to the position of the sun. Such is the complexity of the information being displayed the crowns are secured to prevent accidental settings. The case is manufactured from microblasted titanium.
As should be expected the box provided with each and every Hublot watch is a work of art in itself. These hand crafted units elegantly combine black wood and stainless steel. On some of the more exclusive boxes the Hublot porthole is utilised to create a voyeuristic exhibition window incorporated into the lid.
Hublot have also come up with a unique way of allowing customers to retain the history of their watch without having the clutter of manuals, warranty certificates and service booklets. These documents are all maintained on an easy to look after credit card. You also receive the USB card reader in the form of the Hublot “H”. This is just another indication of Hublots pro-active nature and thought processes.
Furthermore, when you register your new Hublot online with Hublot you receive an additional 1 year’s manufacturer’s warranty.
About 20,000 in-house movements will be produced annually and will be introduced into around 70% of Hublot’s chronographs in the medium term. The ultimate goal will be to produce 100% of all watches with manufacture movements. One of the most exciting developments within the watch industry within the last 12 months is “Magic Gold”. This the name that Hublot has chosen for their own precious metal. This is not a result of alchemy. Years of research and development has resulted in a sintered and molten compound of gold combined with a ceramic matrix. The 750 to 250 gold to ceramic ratio still allows for the 18ct seal. The only problem being that the surface may be too hard for the stamp!
As of 1st January 2013, Jean Claude Biver stepped aside as CEO of Hublot and handed the reigns to Ricardo Guadalupe, former Hublot managing director and personal friend of Biver with whom he has been working with for nearly 20 years. Jean Claude remains as the Board Chairman. In this role he will continue to provide input into the company’s business strategy and product development. He will remain as official spokesperson for Hublot and will also coordinate communications activities.
I am so pleased that Andrew had the vision and conviction, on a par with Jean-Claude Biver, to take on the Hublot brand. The timepieces are incredibly exciting and desirable. My scepticism was totally unfounded. Hublot could become as big a player in the luxury watch market as any other brand, given time (pun intended).
It could be so easy to dismiss Hublot watches as simply rich boy folly. However, there is an impressive integrity about Hublot. The passion for the brand and the products is evident in all aspects of design and manufacturing.
Don’t make the same mistake as I did and simply look at the press images, the materials spec sheet, the movement and the price tag with a dismissive conclusion that Hublots are over-priced and over-hyped. These watches deserve the respect they get. Hublot and Jean-Claude Biver merit the success they have achieved in a short period of time in an over-populated market.
Do yourself a favour: Allow yourself the opportunity to handle and try on one of these exceptionally designed and built timepieces. Emotion, fuelled by aesthetics, feel and desirability, is the main catalyst when deciding on a luxury timepiece. Hublots have the gift to evoke.
Hublots are not perfect: The price takes some swallowing to start off with and I’m concerned what the average price point will be once the complete catalogue becomes in-house, as per their current aspirations. The clasp unit for the straps has little adjustment for ultimate comfort. There is no luminosity material applied to any of the Classic Fusion models. Finally, some of the most desirable timepieces within the collection, including a lot of the Limited Editions and the Oceanagraphic, are just way too big for an average wrist.
However, Hublot is still a brand in its infancy. It is now trying to cope with ever-increasing demand. It has a brilliant and experienced helmsman who will strive for perfection. Therefore, I’m sure, once feedback becomes prevalent, Hublot will look to address some of these issues.
If you are ever in the enviable position to buy a Hublot I guarantee you will not be purchasing it to comply with current trends or because ‘so-and-so’ wears one, which is a fundemental risk of Biver’s enormous product placement protocols. Neither will you be left with a watch that warrants more respect from others than it does from yourself. You will have something to cherish for a long, long time.
Finally, it was a great honour for me to have Jean Claude Biver prove the draft of this article before I submitted it. I was delighted to get his approval. He also had this quote which he politely asked me to append to this overview:
“Ne pas répéter le passé, mais le connecter au futur. Chercher à toujours être le premier, unique et différent. Garder toujours la même équipe dirigeante et mettre l’éthique non pas comme un frein, mais un facteur du succès. Et finalement inclure la vitesse et la réactivité dans le processus décisionnaire. Tels sont les ingrédients du succès de Hublot et de son équipe.”
“Do not repeat the past, but connect it to the future. Seek to always be the first, unique and different. Always keep the same management team and put ethics not as an obstacle, but a factor of success. Finally include speed and responsiveness in decision making. Such are the ingredients of success of Hublot and their team. “
Merci Beaucoup Monsieur Biver.
All words by Richard Atkins. All images by Richard or taken from Hublot’s press image archive. This article may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the strict permission of the author.